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Form SA370: How to Appeal Against Penalties

Updated: Jan 10

Self-Assessment: How to Appeal Against Penalties for Late Payment

Filing your self-assessment tax return on time is not just a legal obligation; it's also crucial for avoiding penalties from HMRC. However, unforeseen circumstances can sometimes make it challenging to meet this deadline. If you find yourself facing penalties for late filing or late payment, it's essential to know that you have options for appeal. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide on how to appeal against these penalties, drawing from official government sources and tax aid organizations.

Form SA370: How to Appeal Against Penalties

Understanding the Penalties

The penalties for late filing can be quite steep, and they are designed to encourage timely compliance. You could face penalties of £1,600 or more over the first 12 months from the filing date. The penalties are structured as follows:

  • £100 for the initial late filing

  • Up to £900 (90 days at £10 a day from 3 months late)

  • £300 for being 6 months late

  • £300 for being 12 months late

  • Additional penalties may apply if you owe a significant amount of tax

When to Appeal

If you believe that you should not have been charged a penalty, the first step is to ask HMRC to withdraw the return. This is possible if all your income was taxed at source, such as through PAYE, or if you had no taxable income for that tax year. However, if you were self-employed, you would still need to file a return even if no tax is due. This is a crucial distinction to understand before proceeding with your appeal.

How to Appeal: Step-by-Step Guide

File Your Tax Return: Before making an appeal, ensure that you have filed your tax return. This is a prerequisite for the appeal process.

Contact HMRC: The appeal should be made within 30 days of receiving the penalty notice. You can contact HMRC at 0300 200 3310 to initiate the process.

Use Form SA 370: This form is specifically designed for appealing against late filing penalties. It can be found on the HMRC website and should be filled out carefully.

State Your Reason: Clearly mention your 'reasonable excuse' for filing late. This is a critical component of your appeal and should be articulated clearly.

Reasonable Excuse: What Qualifies?

A 'reasonable excuse' is a valid reason for not meeting the tax deadline. HMRC has a narrow view of what constitutes a reasonable excuse, but the Tax Tribunal may take a broader view. For example, if you relied on your accountant and it was reasonable to expect that they would file on time, this could be considered a reasonable excuse. However, this will not apply if your accountant has been unreliable in the past.

Special Circumstances: An Additional Avenue

You may also ask HMRC to reduce the penalty due to special circumstances. These could include health issues, debt problems, or other personal difficulties that prevented you from filing on time. This is an additional avenue for appeal that you may consider if applicable to your situation.

The Importance of Timing

Timing is crucial when it comes to appealing against penalties. The appeal should be made within 30 days of receiving the penalty notice. However, HMRC may consider late appeals in certain situations. It's essential to act quickly and not let the deadline slip further, as this could complicate your appeal process.

Documentation: The Backbone of Your Appeal

Proper documentation can significantly strengthen your appeal. This includes any evidence that supports your 'reasonable excuse' or special circumstances. For example, medical records, invoices, or correspondence can serve as valuable evidence. Make sure to gather all relevant documents before initiating the appeal process.

HMRC Review: The Second Chance

If HMRC rejects your appeal, you can ask for a review by a different HMRC official. This is particularly useful if you missed out on significant information in your initial appeal letter. The review process is designed to ensure fairness and accuracy in the decision-making process.

Appeals to the First Tier Tribunal: The Final Resort

If your appeal is still not accepted, you can take the matter to the First Tier Tribunal (Tax). This can be done either at an oral hearing or on paper. The taxpayer always has the right to appear and be heard, and this is your final chance to make your case.

Points to Consider: Fine Details

  1. Timing: The 'reasonable excuse' must continue throughout the period from the missed filing date until shortly before you actually file the return. This is a nuanced point that is often overlooked.

  2. Accountant Reliability: If your accountant has previously been unreliable, relying on them will not be considered a reasonable excuse. This is a point to consider when making your appeal.

  3. Online Filing: If you register for online filing before the 31 January deadline but do not receive your access code in time, this may be considered a reasonable excuse. This is particularly relevant in the digital age.

Final Steps: Wrapping Up the Appeal

Once you have gathered all the necessary information and filled out the required forms, submit your appeal to HMRC or the First Tier Tribunal, as the case may be. Make sure to keep copies of all documents and correspondence for your records. This is crucial for any future references or appeals.

Detailed Process of Appealing Against a Self-Assessment Penalty

Appealing against a self-assessment penalty involves several steps, and understanding these is crucial for any taxpayer facing a penalty from HMRC.

Appealing Online or by Post

  1. For £100 Late Filing Penalty:

  • You can appeal this penalty online using HMRC’s digital service. This requires a Government Gateway account.

  • When you submit your appeal online, you’ll receive a confirmation message and a reference number to track your appeal​​​.

  1. For Other Penalties:

  • Use the postal form SA370 for appealing against other late filing or late payment penalties.

  • Complete the form with necessary details and post it to HMRC​​​.

Reasonable Excuse

A critical aspect of your appeal is providing a 'reasonable excuse' for missing the deadline. HMRC considers situations like:

  • Death of a partner or close relative shortly before the deadline.

  • Unexpected hospital stays.

  • Serious or life-threatening illness.

  • Computer or software failure.

  • HMRC online service issues.

  • Fire, flood, or theft.

  • Postal delays.

  • Disability-related delays​​​.

Unacceptable Excuses

Some common excuses that HMRC will not consider reasonable include:

  • Relying on someone else to send your return and they did not.

  • Payment failures.

  • Difficulty in using HMRC’s website.

  • Making a mistake in the tax return.

  • Registration issues for online filing​.

Time Limit for Appeal

You must usually appeal within 30 days from the date of receiving the penalty notice. If you miss this deadline, provide a valid reason for the delay to have your appeal considered​​​.

What to Do if HMRC Rejects Your Appeal?

If HMRC rejects your initial appeal, you have further options:

  1. Request a Review by HMRC:

  • Ask HMRC to review the decision, conducted by an independent party not involved in the initial decision.

  • The review process typically takes around 45 days​.

  1. Appeal to the Tax Tribunal:

  • You have 30 days from the date of HMRC's rejection to lodge an appeal with the First-tier Tribunal (Tax Chamber).

  • This is an independent body that will consider your case impartially​​​.

  1. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR):

  • This is a less formal process involving a mediator who helps find a mutually agreeable solution between you and HMRC​.

Unable to Pay the Penalty?

If you're unable to pay the penalty, it's crucial to contact HMRC immediately. Options include:

  • Making a hardship application.

  • HMRC may wait for your payment during the appeal process if you opt to appeal to the tribunal​.

Navigating the appeal process against a self-assessment penalty in the UK requires a clear understanding of the steps involved, the strict deadlines, and the need for a reasonable excuse. Understanding these aspects is vital for successfully appealing a penalty and handling the situation with HMRC effectively.

Ensuring a Successful Appeal Against HMRC Penalties

In the final part of this guide, we focus on ensuring the success of your appeal against a self-assessment penalty imposed by HMRC. The following tips and considerations are essential:

1. Understand What Constitutes a Reasonable Excuse:

  • Valid excuses include severe illness, bereavement, unexpected hospital stays, HMRC technical issues, disasters like fire or flood, and serious software failures.

  • Inadequate funds, forgetting to file, and not receiving a reminder from HMRC are not considered reasonable excuses​​​​​​​​​.

2. Submit Appeals Timely:

  • Generally, you have 30 days from receiving the penalty notice to appeal.

  • Late appeals need a valid explanation for the delay​​​​​.

3. Choose the Right Method for Appeal:

  • For a £100 late filing penalty, use the online service.

  • For other penalties, appeal by post using the SA370 form or by phone.

  • Ensure you have filed your tax return before appealing​​​.

4. Provide Detailed Explanation and Evidence:

  • Clearly explain your reasonable excuse and provide any supporting evidence.

  • If appealing by post, include all relevant details in your letter of appeal, such as taxpayer name, tax reference number, and tax years you are appealing for​.

5. Pay the Penalty Upfront (Optional but Recommended):

  • Consider paying the penalty even if you plan to appeal. This can prevent additional interest charges if your appeal is unsuccessful​.

6. Prepare for Possible Rejection and Next Steps:

  • If HMRC rejects your appeal, request a review by an independent HMRC officer or appeal to the tax tribunal.

  • Consider alternative dispute resolution as an option​​​.

7. Handling Financial Difficulties:

  • If you can't pay the penalty, contact HMRC as soon as possible.

  • Discuss setting up a payment plan or negotiating a reduction in the penalty amount​.

8. Keep Records and Copies:

  • Keep copies of all correspondence and evidence submitted to HMRC.

  • If sending documents by post, use registered mail for proof of posting​.

9. Consider Professional Advice:

  • If unsure about the process or if your case is complex, consider seeking advice from a tax professional.

10. Plan to Avoid Future Penalties:

  • Take corrective action to ensure compliance in the future, such as appointing an accountant or using reminders and checklists to meet deadlines​.

Successfully appealing a self-assessment penalty requires a clear understanding of HMRC's criteria for reasonable excuses, adherence to appeal deadlines, and proper preparation of your appeal. It's crucial to be proactive in handling appeals and financial difficulties related to penalties. Remember, each case is unique, and HMRC evaluates appeals on an individual basis. If necessary, seek professional advice to guide you through the process and ensure future compliance with HMRC requirements.

The Role of Professional Help

While it's entirely possible to navigate the appeals process on your own, professional assistance can be invaluable. Tax lawyers and accountants have the expertise to identify the strongest points of your case and present them effectively. They can also help you understand the nuances of tax law, which can be particularly beneficial if your case goes to the First Tier Tribunal.

The Financial Costs of Appealing

It's essential to consider the financial implications of appealing a penalty. While you might be focused on getting the penalty revoked, remember that professional help and potential court fees could add up. Weigh these costs against the penalty amount and the likelihood of a successful appeal.

The Emotional Toll

Appealing a penalty isn't just a financial or legal matter; it can also be emotionally draining. The process can be lengthy and filled with uncertainty. Being prepared for this emotional toll can help you manage stress and make more rational decisions throughout the appeal.

The Importance of Communication

Throughout the appeal process, maintaining open and honest communication with HMRC is crucial. If your circumstances change or new information comes to light, inform them as soon as possible. This proactive approach can positively influence the outcome of your appeal.

Online vs. Postal Appeals

If you've received a £100 fixed late filing penalty, you can appeal online through your Government Gateway account. For other types of penalties, you'll need to download and complete the postal form SA370. The method of appeal you choose can impact the processing time, so choose wisely based on your specific circumstances.

Paying the Penalty During the Appeal

It might seem counterintuitive, but paying the penalty even while you appeal can be beneficial. If HMRC does not agree with your appeal, you won't have to pay interest on the penalty amount. This can save you additional costs in the long run.

The Outcome of the Appeal

If HMRC agrees with your appeal, they will cancel the penalty and any added interest. If you've paid the penalty while appealing, this amount will be refunded to you with interest. On the other hand, if HMRC disagrees, they will explain why and what you need to do next. You will still be required to pay the penalty and any added interest.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

ADR is another route you can take if you disagree with HMRC's decision. This involves an independent mediator who helps both parties reach an agreement. ADR can be quicker and less formal than going to a tribunal, and it can also be less confrontational.

Record-Keeping for Future Reference

Even after your appeal is resolved, keep all related documents and correspondence. This information can be invaluable for future tax filings or if questions about this specific case arise later. Good record-keeping practices can save you time and stress in the long run.

Understanding HMRC's Perspective

It's beneficial to understand how HMRC views penalties and appeals. They are not just punitive measures but also deterrents designed to encourage compliance. Understanding this can help you frame your appeal in a way that aligns with HMRC's objectives, increasing your chances of a successful outcome.

The Impact on Your Credit Score

Unpaid tax penalties can affect your credit score, making it more difficult to secure loans or credit in the future. Successfully appealing against a penalty can help you avoid these long-term financial repercussions.

The Role of Public Opinion

In some cases, particularly those involving large sums or public figures, the court of public opinion can play a role. While this is generally not a significant factor in the appeal itself, being aware of public sentiment can help you manage your reputation during the process.

The Bigger Picture: Compliance and Responsibility

Finally, it's essential to view the appeal process within the broader context of your tax responsibilities. An appeal is not just about contesting a single penalty but also about demonstrating your commitment to fulfilling your tax obligations. A successful appeal can serve as a learning experience, helping you avoid similar issues in the future.

By considering these additional aspects, you can approach the appeal process with a more comprehensive understanding and a better strategy. Whether you're going through the appeal alone or with professional help, being well-informed is your best asset.

What is Form SA370 and How to Use It to Appeal Against Penalties for Late Payment of Self-Assessment

What is Form SA370 and How to Use It to Appeal Against Penalties for Late Payment of Self-Assessment

Form SA370 is a crucial document for individuals who have filed their Self-Assessment tax returns late in the United Kingdom. This form allows you to appeal against the penalties imposed by Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) for late filing and late payment. However, the process is not as straightforward as it seems. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide on what Form SA370 is and how to use it effectively to appeal against penalties.

What is Form SA370?

Form SA370 is a document issued by HMRC for individuals who have filed their Self-Assessment tax returns late. The primary purpose of this form is to appeal against the late penalties imposed by HMRC. It is essential to note that this form should only be submitted if you believe you have a "Reasonable Excuse" for filing your tax return late.

When to Use Form SA370

You should use Form SA370 within 30 days of receiving the late penalty notice from HMRC. Failing to do so within this timeframe may result in the rejection of your appeal.

How to Submit Form SA370

The form can be submitted online if you are only appealing against a £100 late filing penalty for tax returns from 6th April 2019 onwards. For any other scenarios, you must submit the form via post.

What Constitutes a "Reasonable Excuse"

A "Reasonable Excuse" is a crucial element when filing an appeal using Form SA370. It is a valid reason that prevented you from meeting the tax deadline. Some examples of reasonable excuses include serious illness, bereavement, or technical issues with the HMRC website.

Steps to File an Appeal

  1. Download the Form: The first step is to download Form SA370 from the official HMRC website.

  2. Fill in the Details: Complete the form with all the required information, including your name, tax identification number, and the reason for the late filing.

  3. Attach Evidence: If possible, attach any evidence that supports your "Reasonable Excuse."

  4. Submit the Form: As mentioned earlier, you can submit the form online for specific cases or send it via post for others.

  5. Wait for a Response: Once submitted, HMRC will review your appeal and respond accordingly. The response time can vary, so it's essential to be patient.

How to Fill Different Sections of Form SA370

Form SA370 is a critical document for taxpayers in the United Kingdom who wish to appeal against penalties for late filing and late payment of their Self-Assessment tax returns. This form is issued by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) and must be filled out carefully to ensure a successful appeal. This article will guide you through the different sections of Form SA370, explaining what each section is for and how to complete it.

Section 1: About You

This section requires you to enter your personal details, including your full name, address, and postcode. If you are making an appeal on behalf of someone else, you should enter their details instead. Additionally, you must enter your National Insurance number if known and the tax reference shown on your penalty notice.

Section 2: Penalties for Filing Your Tax Return Late

In this section, you need to specify which penalties you are appealing against. You will find the penalty amounts and dates on your SA326D or SA370 'Notice of Penalty Assessment.' You should enter the amount of each penalty and the date of your penalty notice for late filing.

Section 3: Penalties for Paying Your Tax Late

Similar to the previous section, this part focuses on penalties for late payment. You need to enter the penalty amounts and the respective dates of the penalty notices for late payment.

Section 4: Your Reason for Making an Appeal

This section is crucial as it determines the validity of your appeal. You need to tick the relevant box that best describes your reason for making an appeal. The options include ill health, postal issues, fire or flood, theft or crime, bereavement, and information technology difficulties. If your reason doesn't fit into these categories, you can tick the 'Other acceptable excuse' box and provide more information.

Section 5: Additional Information

If the space provided in the form is insufficient for explaining your reason for appeal, you can continue on a separate sheet of paper and attach it to the back of your appeal form.

Section 6: Signature and Date

Once you've filled out all the necessary information, you must sign and date the form. If you're signing the appeal on behalf of someone else, specify your capacity (e.g., agent, executor, or personal representative).

Section 7: Your Daytime Phone Number

Providing your daytime phone number can be helpful for HMRC to contact you for any clarifications or updates regarding your appeal.

Section 8: Alternate Contact Information

If your name and address are different from the ones you've entered in the 'About You' section, you should provide the alternate contact information here.

Final Steps

After completing the form, you should send it to Self-Assessment, HM Revenue and Customs, BX9 1AS within 30 days of receiving your penalty notice. Late appeals may be accepted if you provide a valid reason for the delay.

Filling out Form SA370 is a meticulous process that requires attention to detail. Each section is designed to capture specific information that will help HMRC assess your appeal effectively. By understanding what each section is for and how to complete it, you can increase your chances of a successful appeal against penalties for late filing and late payment of your Self-Assessment tax returns.

Understanding Form SA370 and how to use it effectively can save you from unnecessary financial burdens. By following the guidelines mentioned above, you can navigate the complexities of appealing against late penalties with ease.

How Can a Tax Accountant Help You If You Get Penalties for Tax Late Payment in the UK

How Can a Tax Accountant Help You If You Get Penalties for Tax Late Payment

Facing penalties for late tax payment can be a stressful experience, especially if you're unfamiliar with the UK's tax system and the appeals process. In such situations, hiring a tax accountant can be a game-changer. A tax accountant can provide expert advice, manage paperwork, and even represent you in dealings with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC). This article explores the various ways a tax accountant can assist you if you find yourself facing penalties for late tax payment in the UK.

Expert Assessment of Your Situation

One of the first things a tax accountant will do is conduct a thorough assessment of your financial situation. They will review the penalty notices, understand the reasons for the late payment, and evaluate whether you have a valid "reasonable excuse" that could be used to appeal the penalty. Their expert assessment can help you decide the best course of action.

Navigating the Appeals Process

The appeals process can be complex and time-consuming. A tax accountant can guide you through each step, ensuring that all paperwork is correctly filled out and submitted within the required deadlines. They can help you prepare the appeal letter, gather necessary documents, and even fill out forms like SA370, which is used to appeal against penalties for late Self-Assessment tax returns.

Liaising with HMRC

Communicating with HMRC can be intimidating for the average person. A tax accountant can act as an intermediary, handling all correspondence and negotiations. They can ensure that your case is presented in the best possible light, increasing the chances of a successful appeal.

Financial Planning and Budgeting

If you've incurred a penalty, it's crucial to reassess your financial planning to avoid future penalties. A tax accountant can help you set up a more effective budgeting and financial tracking system. They can also advise you on making timely payments in the future to mitigate the risk of additional penalties.

Legal Representation

In extreme cases where the appeal goes to a tribunal, having a tax accountant by your side can be invaluable. They can provide legal representation, ensuring that your case is robust and well-presented. Their expertise in tax law can give you a significant advantage in legal proceedings.

Minimizing Additional Costs

Penalties for late tax payment can accrue additional costs, such as interest on the unpaid amount. A tax accountant can help you understand these additional charges and work on a strategy to minimize them. For instance, they might advise you to pay the penalty upfront while your appeal is being processed to avoid accruing interest.

Emotional Support and Peace of Mind

Facing a tax penalty can be emotionally draining. The expertise and guidance provided by a tax accountant can offer much-needed peace of mind. Knowing that a professional is handling your case can relieve stress and allow you to focus on other important aspects of your life.

Penalties for late tax payment are not just a financial burden; they can also take a toll on your emotional well-being. Hiring a tax accountant can alleviate much of this stress by providing expert advice, handling paperwork, and representing you in dealings with HMRC. Their role is not just to help you navigate the complexities of the tax system but also to provide strategies for better financial management in the future. Therefore, if you find yourself facing penalties for late tax payment in the UK, seeking the assistance of a tax accountant can be a wise decision.


1. Q: What is the typical response time from HMRC after submitting Form SA370?

A: The response time can vary, but typically HMRC aims to respond within a few weeks. However, during busy periods, it may take longer.

2. Q: Can I appeal a penalty if I'm outside the UK?

A: Yes, taxpayers residing outside the UK can appeal penalties using Form SA370, following the same process as UK residents.

3. Q: Is electronic submission of Form SA370 available for all types of penalties?

A: Electronic submission of Form SA370 is primarily available for £100 late filing penalties. For other penalties, the form usually needs to be mailed.

4. Q: How can I prove my 'reasonable excuse' for late filing?

A: Evidence can include medical records, death certificates, records of natural disasters, or documentation of technical failures.

5. Q: Can I authorize someone else to appeal on my behalf?

A: Yes, you can authorize a tax professional or agent to appeal on your behalf. They will need to provide their details and your authorization in the appeal.

6. Q: What happens if I miss the 30-day deadline for appealing?

A: If you miss the 30-day deadline, you can still appeal, but you'll need to provide a valid reason for the delay in your appeal.

7. Q: Are there any fees associated with filing an appeal using Form SA370? A: There are no fees for filing an appeal using Form SA370 with HMRC.

8. Q: Can I withdraw my appeal after submission?

A: Yes, you can withdraw your appeal, but you should inform HMRC as soon as possible.

9. Q: What if my circumstances change after I've submitted my appeal?

A: You should inform HMRC of any changes that might affect your appeal. This includes changes in your financial situation or additional evidence.

10. Q: How do I know if my appeal has been received by HMRC?

A: If you submit your appeal online, you'll receive a confirmation message. If you mail your appeal, you may use registered post for confirmation of delivery.

11. Q: Can I appeal a penalty for a tax return from several years ago? A: Yes, you can appeal older penalties, but it's essential to provide a comprehensive explanation for the delay in appealing.

12. Q: What if I disagree with HMRC's decision on my appeal?

A: If you disagree with HMRC's decision, you can request a review by a different HMRC officer or escalate to the First-tier Tribunal.

13. Q: How should I prepare for a hearing with the First-tier Tribunal?

A: You should gather all relevant documents, prepare your arguments, and you may also seek professional legal advice.

14. Q: Can I appeal against both filing and payment penalties on the same form?

A: Yes, Form SA370 allows you to appeal against both filing and payment penalties.

15. Q: What if I find it difficult to understand the appeal process?

A: You may seek assistance from a tax professional or use HMRC's guidance available on their website.

16. Q: Are there any risks involved in appealing a tax penalty?

A: The main risk is the possibility of the appeal being rejected, in which case the penalty stands, and you may have additional interest to pay.

17. Q: How specific do I need to be in my 'reasonable excuse' explanation? A: Your explanation should be detailed and specific, providing clear reasons and any supporting evidence for your late filing or payment.

18. Q: Can a charity or non-profit organization use Form SA370 for appeals?

A: Yes, charities and non-profit organizations can use Form SA370 to appeal penalties in the same way as individuals and businesses.

19. Q: Will appealing a penalty impact my future tax filings or relationship with HMRC?

A: An appeal does not typically impact future tax filings or your overall relationship with HMRC, especially if done correctly and for valid reasons.

20. Q: Can I contact HMRC directly to discuss my appeal?

A: Yes, you can contact HMRC directly to discuss your appeal or seek clarification on the process. Their contact details are usually provided on the penalty notice.



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