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What Is S455 Tax in the UK?

Introduction to Section 455 Tax

In the UK, s455 tax, part of the Corporation Tax Act 2010, is designed to prevent tax avoidance through loans made by close companies to their participators, such as shareholders or directors. Essentially, it taxes loans made to shareholders or associated individuals when these loans are not repaid within a specified time frame. This tax acts as a deterrent against companies making loans to shareholders instead of distributing profits as dividends, which would be subject to dividend tax.

What Is S455 Tax in the UK

Definition of Close Company

A close company is generally a private company that's controlled by five or fewer participators, or by its directors who are also shareholders. Most private companies in the UK fall into this category due to their ownership structure.

Detailed Mechanics of s455 Tax

Tax Charge Conditions

The tax is levied on loans or advances made to participators if these are not repaid within nine months and one day from the end of the company's financial year in which the loan was made. If the loan remains unpaid beyond this period, s455 tax is applied at a rate mirroring the higher rate of dividend tax—33.75% as of loans made after 6 April 2022.

Calculation and Payment

The calculation of s455 tax is based on the amount of the loan outstanding at the year-end. The tax must be included in the company's tax return and paid alongside its corporation tax liabilities. For small companies, this tax is payable nine months and one day after the end of the financial year, while larger companies with taxable profits exceeding £1.5 million pay in quarterly installments.

Repayment and Relief

If a loan is repaid, released, or written off, the s455 tax paid can be reclaimed. The process for reclaiming this tax depends on when the repayment occurs. If repayment happens within the same or the last two accounting periods, it can be reclaimed using the CT600A form. For repayments older than two years, claims must be submitted using the L2P form during the next corporation tax return.

Exemptions and Exceptions

Several exemptions can apply to the s455 tax charge. For instance:

  • Loans Made in the Ordinary Course of Business: If a company’s business includes lending money (like a bank), loans made in this context are not subject to s455 tax.

  • Small Loans: Loans under £15,000 to an employee or director who doesn’t have a significant interest in the company are exempt, provided the total of all such loans does not exceed £15,000.

  • Commercial Transactions: Debts related to the supply of goods or services that do not exceed normal credit terms or six months are also exempt.

This introduction lays the groundwork for understanding how s455 tax operates within the framework of UK corporation tax law, ensuring compliance while identifying potential reliefs and exemptions for affected taxpayers.

Rules and Regulations Surrounding S455 Tax

In this second part of our article, we will explore the rules and regulations surrounding S455 tax, including the "bed and breakfast" rules, tax implications, and how to avoid S455 tax.

The "Bed and Breakfast" Rules

The "bed and breakfast" rules were introduced in 1998 to prevent individuals from avoiding S455 tax by repaying and re-borrowing loans within a short period. These rules apply when a shareholder or director repays a loan and then re-borrows from the company within a 30-day period. In this case, the repayment is ignored, and the original loan is still subject to S455 tax.

Tax Implications of S455 Tax

S455 tax has significant tax implications for close companies and their shareholders or directors. The tax is payable by the company, and the loan is treated as a dividend for tax purposes. This means that the shareholder or director is taxed on the loan as if it were a dividend, and the company cannot deduct the loan from its taxable profits.

How to Avoid S455 Tax

There are several ways to avoid S455 tax, including:

  • Making loans in the ordinary course of business

  • Charging a commercial rate of interest on the loan

  • Repaying the loan within nine months of the end of the accounting period

  • Making a tax payment on account to cover the S455 tax liability

Planning and Compliance

To avoid S455 tax, close companies and their shareholders or directors must plan carefully and comply with the rules and regulations. This includes:

  • Keeping accurate records of loans made and repaid

  • Ensuring that loans are made at a commercial rate of interest

  • Repaying loans within the required timeframe

  • Making tax payments on account to cover S455 tax liability

HMRC Investigations

HMRC can investigate close companies and their shareholders or directors to ensure compliance with S455 tax rules. Penalties and fines can be imposed for non-compliance, and HMRC can also challenge loans that are deemed to be tax avoidance schemes.

Practical Scenarios and Compliance for s455 Tax

Handling of Loans and Repayments

In practice, the management of loans under s455 is crucial for compliance. Companies must meticulously record each loan made to participators, noting the dates and amounts, to ensure accurate tax calculations and avoid penalties. The s455 tax charge is applied to each loan that remains unpaid by the nine-month deadline following the financial year-end in which the loan was made.

Bed and Breakfasting

One common issue is "bed and breakfasting", where loans are repaid and then quickly re-borrowed. This tactic is closely monitored by HMRC, and anti-avoidance rules have been established to prevent it. If a loan is repaid and a similar amount is borrowed within 30 days, HMRC will treat the original loan as not having been repaid, thereby imposing the s455 tax on it.

Impact on Cash Flow

For companies, managing the cash flow implications of s455 tax is significant. If loans to participators are common practice, the potential tax charge can tie up funds that might otherwise be used for business operations or investment. Companies need to strategize their distributions and loans with an understanding of these tax implications to avoid unnecessary tax burdens.

Tax Planning Considerations

Tax planning around s455 involves considering the timing of loans and their repayments. Companies might benefit from aligning loan repayments with their fiscal calendar to minimize the tax liability before the deadline. Furthermore, considering the structure of transactions and the formalities of loan agreements can also be part of strategic tax planning to ensure compliance and optimize tax outcomes.

Recent Legislative Changes and Implications

Updates in Rates and Rules

As of 6 April 2022, the s455 tax rate was adjusted to 33.75%, aligning with the higher rate of dividend tax. This change underscores the government's approach to ensuring that loans are not used as a means to circumvent the typical tax dues on dividends.

Compliance and HMRC's Stance

HMRC's focus on compliance with s455 has intensified, with more detailed reporting requirements and stricter penalties for non-compliance. Companies are required to disclose loans to participators in their tax returns and could face inquiries or audits if discrepancies are suspected.

Anticipated Reforms

There have been discussions in tax circles about potential reforms to the s455 regime, particularly concerning the simplification of rules and the introduction of more flexible repayment terms to aid small businesses. While no formal changes have been announced, the tax community remains vigilant about any legislative updates that might affect s455 tax.

Understanding these practical and legislative aspects helps companies navigate the complexities of s455 tax, ensuring they remain compliant while effectively managing their tax liabilities. In the final section, we will summarize the key points and provide strategic insights for managing s455 liabilities effectively.

How to Calculate s455 Tax in the UK - A Step by Step Process

Calculating Section 455 tax in the UK involves a systematic approach to determine the corporation tax due on loans or advances made by a close company to its participators. Here’s a detailed, step-by-step guide to understanding and computing this tax liability:

Step 1: Determine if the Company is a Close Company

The first step in calculating s455 tax is to ascertain whether the entity in question is a close company. According to the UK's Corporation Tax Act 2010, a close company is typically controlled by five or fewer participators or any number of directors who are also shareholders. Most private companies in the UK meet this definition.

Step 2: Identify the Loans or Advances

Once you've established that the company is a close company, review its financial transactions to identify any loans or advances made to participators or their associates during the accounting period. This includes direct loans and any indirect benefits that might qualify as loans under tax rules.

Step 3: Check for Any Exemptions

Before applying the tax calculations, it's crucial to check if any exemptions apply to the identified loans. For instance, loans made in the ordinary course of business that involve lending money (like those made by banks) are exempt. Also, small loans under £15,000 to employees or directors who do not have a significant shareholding are typically exempt if certain conditions are met.

Step 4: Calculate the Taxable Amount

For each loan that does not qualify for exemptions, calculate the amount outstanding at the end of the company’s financial year. This is the amount that will be considered for s455 tax if it remains unpaid nine months and one day after the end of the financial year in which the loan was made.

Step 5: Apply the s455 Tax Rate

Apply the current s455 tax rate to the taxable amount of each loan. As of loans made after 6 April 2022, the tax rate is 33.75%, aligning with the higher rate of dividend tax. This percentage is applied to the outstanding loan amount to determine the tax due.

Step 6: Record the Tax Liability

Record the calculated s455 tax as a liability in the company’s accounts. This amount should also be included in the company’s corporation tax return. Proper documentation and accounting for this tax are critical for compliance and future reference, especially in case of audits or reviews by HMRC.

Step 7: Consider Repayment Scenarios

If any loans are repaid, released, or written off before the nine-month deadline after the financial year-end, adjust the tax liability accordingly. The s455 tax charge reduces proportionately with the amount of the loan repaid. Detailed records of repayments or write-offs must be maintained to substantiate the reductions in tax liability.

Step 8: Review and Finalize

Finally, review all calculations and records to ensure accuracy and completeness. It’s advisable to consult with a tax professional if there are complexities in the transactions or uncertainties in the application of tax laws. Once verified, finalize the tax figures for submission.

Calculating s455 tax requires a thorough understanding of the rules and careful review of the company's financial dealings with its participators. It is important to keep accurate records and stay informed about any changes in legislation that may affect the tax calculations. Compliance with these tax regulations not only ensures legal conformity but also optimizes the company's financial planning.

For a more detailed exploration or specific case studies, consulting a tax professional or referring to authoritative tax guides and HMRC's official documentation is recommended. These resources can provide updated rates, exceptions, and detailed guidance on handling complex situations related to s455 tax.

A Case Study of a Company Paying S455 Tax

This case study explores the real-life scenario of XYZ Ltd, a UK-based close company, which faced substantial s455 tax liabilities due to loans it made to its participators. We will analyze the company's financial decisions, the resulting tax implications, and the steps taken to manage the liabilities.


XYZ Ltd is a private construction company controlled by its three directors, who are also the major shareholders. The company had been performing well, generating significant profits, which led to substantial cash reserves. Instead of declaring dividends, which would be taxed, the directors decided to make loans to themselves from the company's reserves.

The Loans

In the financial year ending April 2020, XYZ Ltd made the following loans to its directors:

  • Director A received £50,000 on June 1, 2019.

  • Director B received £30,000 on September 15, 2019.

  • Director C received £20,000 on January 10, 2020.

None of these loans were repaid by the end of the financial year on April 30, 2020.

s455 Tax Calculation

XYZ Ltd's accountant identified that these loans could trigger s455 tax liabilities if not repaid within nine months and one day of the financial year-end. The tax rate applicable was 32.5% at that time because the loans were made before the rate change in April 2022.

The calculations were as follows:

  • For Director A: £50,000 x 32.5% = £16,250

  • For Director B: £30,000 x 32.5% = £9,750

  • For Director C: £20,000 x 32.5% = £6,500

Total s455 tax liability for the financial year 2019-2020 was £32,500.

Compliance and Reporting

The company included this tax liability in its corporation tax return and set aside the necessary funds to cover the tax. This proactive measure was crucial in ensuring compliance with HMRC regulations and avoiding penalties.

Repayment and Tax Reclamation

By the deadline of February 1, 2021, Directors A and C had repaid their loans in full. Director B, however, only managed to repay £10,000 of his loan. The repayments affected the s455 tax calculation as follows:

  • Repayment by Director A: £16,250 reclaimed

  • Partial repayment by Director B: £10,000 x 32.5% = £3,250 reclaimed

After adjustments, the remaining s455 tax liability for the financial year 2019-2020 was £12,250 (£32,500 - £16,250 - £3,250).

Lessons Learned and Strategic Changes

XYZ Ltd learned several valuable lessons from this experience. Firstly, the importance of understanding tax implications associated with participator loans was highlighted. The company now consults with their tax accountant before making any financial moves that could impact their tax liabilities.

Secondly, XYZ Ltd implemented stricter policies regarding loans to directors, including setting clear repayment schedules and considering other ways to distribute profits that might be more tax-efficient.

The case of XYZ Ltd provides a clear example of how s455 tax can affect a company and emphasizes the need for careful financial and tax planning. It also illustrates the benefits of professional tax advice in navigating complex tax laws and avoiding potential pitfalls. The experience led XYZ Ltd to adopt more rigorous financial governance practices, ultimately fostering a more robust approach to managing corporate finances and tax obligations.

The Role of a Tax Accountant in Managing s455 Tax Liabilities

The Role of a Tax Accountant in Managing s455 Tax Liabilities

Introduction to s455 Tax and the Need for Expertise

Section 455 of the UK Corporation Tax Act 2010 imposes a tax on loans made by close companies to their participators, which can include directors and shareholders. This tax can be complex due to the intricacies of its triggers and exceptions. A tax accountant specializes in navigating these complexities, ensuring compliance while optimizing tax liabilities.

Understanding and Identifying s455 Liabilities

A tax accountant begins their role by helping you identify whether your company is a close company as defined under the Act. They then review financial transactions to pinpoint any loans or advances that might trigger s455 tax liabilities. This is crucial because failing to correctly identify these loans can result in substantial unexpected tax charges.

Strategic Planning and Advice

One of the primary benefits of engaging a tax accountant is receiving strategic advice on how to manage and plan for s455 liabilities. They can help structure the company’s financial affairs in ways that minimize tax liabilities. This might involve restructuring loan agreements or timing the repayment of loans to avoid triggering the tax. For instance, ensuring that loans are repaid within nine months and one day after the end of the accounting period can prevent the accrual of s455 tax.

Navigating Exemptions and Reliefs

Tax accountants are adept at identifying potential exemptions that could apply to loans. For example, loans made in the ordinary course of business, certain small loans under £15,000, or loans for commercial transactions that do not exceed the standard credit terms might be exempt from s455 tax. A tax accountant will ensure that all qualifying exemptions are applied, thus reducing the overall tax burden.

Compliance and Documentation

Ensuring compliance involves more than just understanding tax laws; it also requires meticulous documentation and reporting. A tax accountant ensures that all transactions involving loans to participators are properly documented and that the necessary disclosures are made in the company's tax returns. This level of precision is crucial for audit-proofing the company’s tax filings.

Calculation and Filing of s455 Tax

The calculation of s455 tax involves applying the correct tax rate to the outstanding loan amounts at the end of the financial year. A tax accountant will perform these calculations accurately and ensure that the tax is reported and paid on time. This is vital as errors in calculation or late payments can lead to penalties and interest charges from HMRC.

Handling HMRC Inquiries and Audits

If HMRC queries the company’s tax returns or decides to audit, having a tax accountant who understands the nuances of s455 tax can be invaluable. They can provide the necessary documentation and explanations to HMRC, defending the company’s tax positions and negotiating on behalf of the company if necessary.

Repayment and Tax Reclaims

In cases where loans are repaid, released, or written off, and s455 tax has been paid, a tax accountant can assist in reclaiming this tax. They know the correct procedures and forms to use, such as the CT600A or L2P, depending on the timing of the repayment. This not only ensures compliance but also improves the company’s cash flow by reclaiming taxes where applicable.

Ongoing Advice and Future Planning

Tax accountants provide ongoing advice and updates on changes in tax legislation that may affect s455 liabilities. They can help plan for future transactions that might involve participator loans, advising on the tax implications and the best ways to handle these to mitigate tax exposure.

In conclusion, a tax accountant plays a critical role in managing s455 tax liabilities for UK close companies. From identifying potential tax triggers and advising on strategic tax planning to ensuring compliance and handling HMRC interactions, their expertise is essential. Engaging a tax accountant not only helps in navigating the complexities of s455 tax but also in making informed decisions that align with the company’s financial goals while minimizing tax liabilities.


Q1: What happens if a company mistakenly does not report a loan to a participator on its tax return?

A: If a company fails to report a loan to a participator, it may face penalties and interest charges from HMRC once the oversight is discovered. It's important to correct the mistake by amending the tax return and disclosing the loan as soon as possible to minimize potential penalties.

Q2: Can s455 tax be deferred or delayed under any circumstances?

A: S455 tax cannot be deferred or delayed; it is due nine months and one day after the end of the accounting period in which the loan was made if it has not been repaid.

Q3: How does a company reclaim s455 tax once the loan has been repaid?

A: To reclaim s455 tax, the company must report the repayment on its next tax return and reduce the amount of tax due by the appropriate amount. Detailed records of the loan repayment must be kept to support the claim.

Q4: Does s455 tax apply to loans made to non-UK residents who are participators in a UK close company?

A: Yes, s455 tax applies to loans made to any participator of a UK close company, regardless of the participator’s residency status.

Q5: Are there any reporting requirements specific to s455 loans on the company tax return?

A: Yes, loans to participators must be specifically reported on the CT600A section of the company tax return, detailing each loan's amount, recipient, and repayment status.

Q6: What constitutes a 'benefit' under s455 besides direct loans?

A: Under s455, a benefit can include any financial advantage given to a participator, such as the use of company property, guarantees on personal loans, or other financial perks not categorized as salary or dividends.

Q7: Can interest charged on a participator loan reduce the s455 tax liability?

A: No, interest charged on the loan does not affect the s455 tax liability. The tax is calculated based solely on the outstanding loan amount at the deadline.

Q8: What if the loan is made through a third party but the funds ultimately benefit a participatory?

A: If a company arranges for a loan to be made to a third party and the funds are then passed on to a participator, this is still considered a loan to a participator for the purposes of s455.

Q9: How are loans from multiple close companies to the same participator treated under s455?

A: Loans from multiple close companies controlled by the same participators are aggregated for the purposes of s455, with tax liability calculated on the total amount outstanding from all such companies.

Q10: Can s455 tax be included in a company's tax budgeting forecast?

A: Yes, companies are advised to include potential s455 tax liabilities in their tax budgeting forecasts to ensure they have sufficient funds available to cover the tax should it become due.

Q11: Does s455 tax apply to loans made by a subsidiary to a participator of its parent company?

A: Yes, if the subsidiary is also a close company and the loan indirectly benefits a participator of the parent company, s455 can apply.

Q12: Are any types of companies exempt from s455 tax irrespective of loan transactions?

A: No specific types of companies are exempt from s455 tax; it applies to all UK close companies that make loans to participatory.

Q13: What records must a company maintain to support s455 calculations and claims?

A: Companies must keep detailed records of all loans made to participators, including loan amounts, terms, repayment schedules, and any repayments or write-offs.

Q14: How does HMRC verify the information provided on s455 loans?

A: HMRC may request additional documentation or conduct audits to verify the details of loans reported under s455 on company tax returns.

Q15: Are directors' loans treated differently under s455 if the director is not a shareholder?.

A: If the director does not hold shares and thus is not a participator, the loan may not be subject to s455 unless it indirectly benefits a participatory.

Q16: Can a loan be reclassified to avoid s455 tax?

A: Reclassifying a loan without genuine business reasons or altering the substance of the transaction is likely to be seen as tax avoidance and could be challenged by HMRC.

Q17: What is the impact of s455 on a company's financial health?

A: S455 tax can significantly impact a company's cash flow if large unpaid loans are taxed, necessitating careful financial planning and management.

**Q18: What are the consequences if a loan initially exempt from s455 tax later fails the exemption criteria?

A: If a loan initially meets the exemption criteria but later circumstances change (such as the loan exceeding the £15,000 threshold or the borrower gaining a significant interest in the company), the exemption may be revoked, and s455 tax may become payable.

Q19: Does the introduction of digital tax management systems affect the reporting of s455 loans?

A: Digital tax systems can streamline the reporting process for s455 loans by providing more structured and accessible ways to report and track loans, potentially reducing errors and improving compliance.

Q20: Are there any specific industries or sectors where s455 tax is more commonly encountered?

A: S455 tax is more commonly encountered in industries where close companies are prevalent, such as in family-owned businesses, private investment firms, and small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in various sectors.



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